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Prinsip Kerja Lampu TL

Kirun Wae | 3/22/2014 | 1 komentar

Pada postingan beberapa waktu yang lalu, telah kita bahas tentang Pengertian dan Karakteristik Lampu Flourescent / TL. Pada postingan kali ini, akan kita lanjutkan tentang pembahasan prinsip kerja lampu TL.

Jika prinsip kerja lampu pijar biasa dan lampu halogen menghasilkan cahaya melalui pemanasan listrik terhadap sebuah filamen sampai menghasilkan panas yang putih, bagian luar lampu pijar dapat mencapai temperatur hingga beberapa ratus derajat, maka lampu TL bekerja dengan prinsip yang berbeda sama sekali.

Lampu TL adalah lampu dengan yang prinsip kerjanya dalam mengubah energi listrik menjadi energi cahaya berdasarkan pada berpendarnya radiasi ultra violet pada permukaan yang dilapisi dengan serbuk fluorescent misalnya jenis phospor. Radiasi ultra violet akan terjadi bilamana elektron–elektron bebas hasil dari emisi elektron pada elektroda bertumbukan dengan atom–atom gas yang terdapat dalam tabung pelepas muatan.

Agar elektroda–elektroda dapat memancarkan elektron, maka perlu bagi elektroda untuk mendapatkan mekanisme pembantu proses tersebut. Pada lampu fluorescent biasa, maka proses emisi elektron ini dilakukan dengan proses pemanasan elektroda–elektroda terlebih dahulu, proses ini dilakukan oleh alat yang kita kenal dengan nama starter (penganjak). Untuk dapat menyala maka lampu tabung fluorescent memerlukan tegangan yang cukup tinggi yaitu kurang lebih 400 Volt, jadi tegangan ini jauh lebih tinggi dari tegangan jala–jala yang tersedia, oleh karena itu fungsi starter selain membantu memanaskan elektroda, juga berfungsi sebagai alat untuk menciptakan tegangan penyalaan bagi lampu.

Jika penyalaan telah selesai dilakukan, arus listrik akan mengalir melalui tabung lampu fluorescent, dan karena tegangan pada starter lebih besar sehingga bimetal pada starter akan terbuka. Oleh karena lampu fluorescent memiliki karakteristik arus – tegangan negatif, artinya tegangan pada lampu akan turun bila arus naik dan sebaliknya tegangan pada lampu akan naik bila arus turun, maka setelah proses penyalaan berlangsung, arus yang lewat pada tabung akan naik sampai tegangan kerja pada lampu tercapai. Tegangan ini jauh lebih rendah dari tegangan jala–jala.

Untuk memelihara tegangan kerja inilah maka pada lampu jenis fluorescent digunakan alat bernama ballast. Fungsi utama dari ballast adalah membatasi besar arus dan mengoperasikan lampu pada karakteristik listrik yang sesuai.

Demikian sedikit ulasan tentang prinsip kerja lampu TL. Semoga menambah wawasan kita dan terima kasih.


1 komentar:

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